PowerfuI as Callot's prints may be, however, they still contain a faintly satirical quality, as though the artist were asking the viewer, in a detached Gallic manner, "Are they not interesting?" In time 17th Century connoisseurs came to prize his etchings even more than his work in oil, and throughout his career his prints enjoyed a good international market. The Rest is unfinished and experimental, and to many eyes it appears to be a botched job that the artist might better have destroyed. The most common are working up with the drypoint and burin, drawing directly onto the copper plate. The Windmill AunesVintageJewels. Rembrandt van Rijn (1696-1669), La circoncision dans lâétable, 1654 Etching on watermarked paper. In engraving or etching the image is of course reversed-right, on the plate, becomes left on the sheet printed from it. One can also deliberately not quite wipe the surface of the plate entirely clean, leaving a little ink on it instead. Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal. In the course of his career Rembrandt made scores, even hundreds of impressions from many of his approximately 290 plates. The worker at the rear dabs ink on a metal plate bearing the design. Later etchers would experiment with different tools and techniques on top of Rembrandt's achievements but no-one could achieve the standards that he had set. The plate is then laid in a bath of dilute acid. To disguise the fact that the plates were worn they were reworked. Almost from the start of his career, Dutch collectors were eager to purchase the variations. For Europeans of Rembrandt's day, a print, etching, engraving or woodcut filled a need that today is met jointly by a work of art and a news photograph. The Watermark Identification in Rembrandtâs Etchings (WIRE) Project. However, the etching serves notice of what is was to come. As a result he started using the drypoint more and more often, sometimes in combination with the burin. Basan carne into the possession of the American collector Robert Lee Humber in 1938. Self Portrait with Loose Hair The maximum is probably around a hundred; only about fifteen in the case of a drypoint plate. Here are the essentials of the etching process: 1). Rembrandt almost always drew his design straight onto the plate. In the former process, the artist works directly on a metal plate, usually copper; to create his design he laboriously cuts lines into its surface with a thin, diagonally sharpened steel rod called a burin. This resulted in an oeuvre of some 290 etchings, all intended as substantive works of art. Useful to the artist wishing to make minor adjustments to the plate. The burin, which is really an engraving tool - hence its other name, graver -has a V-shaped point which cuts a sharp-edged line starting and ending in a point. In 1993, Rembrandtâs copper etching plates were sold to museums throughout the world and a select number of art dealers. Examples of very lightly inked prints which look almost like silverpoint drawings (the silverpoint is just that: a silver point held in wood like the le ad in a pencil. A batch of 78 plates owned in the eighteenth century by the French printer and engraver J .P. The drypoint is an etching needle with a sharp point strong enough to carve lines in the copper. As in almost all his work, Rembrandt approached his subject with great warmth, conceiving the Holy Family not in the traditional way but quite literally as a family: Mary feeds her Son while Joseph, who is often relegated to the background in such scenes, holds the dish. Most printmakers take this into consideration by reversing their designs at the point when they transfer their preparatory drawings to their plates. This makes the printed line slightly ragged or fuzzy. We know that Rembrandt used a fairly soft, pasty etching ground of his own devising. 46-51. In modern manufacturing, other chemicals may be used on other types of material. Only a limited number of impressions can be 'pulled' from an etching plate. c. 1880 (This print is from the 1800's it is NOT a modern print.). By following the example of Raphael, Rembrandt probably wanted to be seen as his student and artistic equal. In his etching, Rembrandt's muscular style is vividly apparent in another self-portrait of the same year, in which he experimented with the use of a blunt instrument, probably a broken or double-pointed one, exposing the correr beneath the coating with vigorous slashes like those in a spontaneous pen drawing. By the same token, prints of the same state may vary considerably as the plate and the burr become worn. Postcards Copperplate and Etching Saskia. What follows here is a description of the technique of etching, with details of its use in Rembrandt's work. Above all, he was a great innovator and experimenter in this medium, often handling traditional materials in unconventional ways. Occasionally the physical or mental health of etchers has been impaired by excessive inhalation of acid fumes, and this, too, contributes to the aura of strangeness and mystery. Above all, Rembrandt's great gift as an etcher lay in preserving a sense of spontaneity while scrupulously attending to close detail. 1955 Press Photo John Gallucci, holding Rembrandt etching, California. The next step is to lay a damp sheet of paper on the plate. rembrandt If the artist is dissatisfied with the result he can alter the etched plate in a variety of ways. The prints were widely circulated, and there can be little doubt that Rembrandt was familiar with them. the comprehensive Rembrandt book with a wealth of excellent images. Rembrandt's earliest etchings may be dated around 1626, when he was 20, and the very few surviving impressions of such a work as the Rest on the Flight to Egypt exhibit both his inexperience and his lively response to the medium. It's just completely photographic in the process. Rembrandt's masterly use of the drypoint and the unique deep black of many of his etchings were famous even in his own day and his work was much sought after by the many print collectors of the time. Many people are surprised to learn that Rembrandt's etchings, not his paintings, were responsible for the international reputation he enjoyed during his lifetime. This can be exploited to good effect. Japanese paper, which was actually imported from Japan, attracted him with its warm, yellowish colour, which was particularly effective in prints of Italianate landscapes such as Christ and the Woman from Samaria (g.) and Saint Gerome Reading in an Italianate Landscape (h.). Rembrandt's income from the sale of his prints is impossible to determine, although the celebrated Hundred Guilder Print apparently was so called because an early collector was willing to pay that sum for an impression of it. Often the changes are slight, amounting to little more than minor additions or corrections. Rembrandt, however, seems not to have cared much about this; his concern was with the quality rather than the pedantic accuracy of his work. A copper plate lends itself fairly readily to change and correction. Rembrandtâs Etching Process. Rembrandt's first plates were pure etchings, i.e. Conrad Machine Presses American French Tool Presses Brand New Presses During the first decades of the seventeenth century Dutch artists like Esaias van de Velde, Jan van de Velde II and Willem Buytewech experimented with the technique. In drypoint printmaking, images are etched onto a plate dry â without acid â so the tools directly unsmoothify the copper plate so it can be inked, and printed onto paper in an un-wet humorless non-boozy sort of way. Etching, on the other hand, introduced a new innovation that made the medium more appealing to artists, particularly those without a metal-working background. The twin currents of refinement and dash, of the smooth and the rough, emerge in Rembrandt's work from the very beginning and are by no means contradictory. Prints were still being made from many of Rembrandt's plates at the end of the seventeenth century and even until well into the eighteenth. The artist can leave more or less ink in the impression.. Rembrandt's sense of humanity is even more evident in a group of small etchings ofbeggars and outcasts made in the late 1620s. Whether painting or making prints, his work blended aesthetic and technical innovation with exceptional insight into the human spirit. This produces a greyish haze aver the impression. It is also possible to introduce deliberate variation by inking the plate differently. Having seen at first hand the horrors resulting tram the Thirty Years' War, Callot produced a gallery of maimed wretches such as might have been found on any highway in Europe. 145 x 117 mm. Prints are impressions, usually on paper, of designs fixed by the artist on some kind of medium, by drawing, painting or cutting. However, there are also other ways of producing variation in the density of lines. Into this thin covering the design is drawn with an etching needle, so that where the needle penetrates the etching ground the copper is exposed. Faust. Most of them were produced in the period 1628-1630, when Rembrandt was still living in Leiden. Thus state V (8) means the fifth state out of a total of eight. These changesâreferred to as âstatesââoffer a rare glimpse into the artistâs creative process. The Rembrandt etching has many other differences, including some peculiar aspects. One of those dealers was Howard Berge who commissioned what is known as the âMillennium Impressionsâ in the early 2000âs, the last known printings from eight of the plates that he purchased in 1993. He was so superb an etcher that critics were persuaded that he had discovered a secret process. Thus Rembrandt's fame while he lived was greater as an etcher than as a painter (he did no engravings or woodcuts). Approximately 16 1/4 x 18 1/4 inches. Before Rembrandt's time the technique of engraving was more frequently used by printmakers than etching. After his death this collection was sold in the London art market (spring of 1993). The plate is then dipped in acid, which âbitesâ into the exposed metal leaving behind lines in the plate. Rembrandt sometimes spent years working on a single plate, making prints from the plate between various changes. The medium may be a wooden block, a plate of metal, or a silk screen. Hand pulled copper plate etching on laid paper after the original by a master etcher. Astonishingly, no fewer than 75 of the plates are owned by one man, Robert Lee Humber of Greenville, North Carolina, a retired international lawyer, who acquired them in 1938 in Paris but did not place them on exhibition for almost 20 years, during which time the question of their whereabouts continued to mystify Rembrandt scholars. from: Ed de Heer, "Technique of Etching" in Nel Segno d Rembrandt, edited by Giuseppe Bergamini and Bert W. Meijer, Venice, 1999, pp. 1658 Rembrandt used surface tone principally to give greater depth to shadows, as in Woman with an Arrow (Cleopatera? He had no thought of making his print look like an engraving, but used a free, scribbling stroke; the protective cove ing on his plates was soft, permitting him to move his needle with the fluidity of chalk or pen on paper. Biblical themes, genre, landscapes, portraits, nudes, all these he found suitable for etching. 2). In his hands, etching became a fully fledged medium which occupied him at intervals for the rest of his life. These states hâ¦ This process is etching proper. Today, when a particularly fine impression of a rare Rembrandt etching changes hands, the price may be as high as $84,000, and in the present buoyant state of the art market it will doubtless go higher. Rembrandt not only experimented with the materials used to create his prints, but he also reworked his imagery. European, Japanese and 'Chinese') and vellum (made from animal skins) vary in colour and surface structure. Rembrandt changed the course of the history of printmaking with his contributions to the medium of etching. Like with engraving and drypoint, etching begins with a metal plate, most commonly copper. Etching was first popularized in the 15th century, with artists such as Albrecht Dürer employing the method. Browse Rembrandt Catalogue Raisonnés Online.. Rembrandtâs life was riddled with extreme highs and lows, yet he remains one of the most accomplished artists of all time. In these early self-portraits Rembrandt was practising portraying facial expressions. Rembrandt must have taken more than a little interest in these developments, for he ultimately took the technique to extremes even more than had his predecessors. It is then wiped clean by hand so that the whole plate is clear of ink except for the grooves. c. 1631 The portrait of his mother, dated 1628, is an extraordinarily penetrating character study, executed by the 22-year-old artist in a network of very fine lines that capture the play of light, shadow and air with a skill far exceeding that of Callot or of any Dutch etcher. But Rembrandt had no secret beyond his genius. The action of the acid produces lines of a slightly irregular, vibrating quality; Rembrandt did not regard this as a drawback, however, but as a challenge. Rembrandt etchings from the collection. 759 x 21 mm. âIn etching, you can achieve a quality of line that you canât in any other medium,â says artist Alexander Massouras, discussing the creative process behind a remarkable group of 50 etchings by Dutch master Rembrandt Van Rijn that were offered at Christieâs in July of 2016.. Gradations in the lines can be achieved only by etching the plate more than once. All are of thin metal, the thickest being only about one twenty-fifth of an inch, and many of them are worn or have been ruined by the reworking of later hands. It was used on paper prepared with an opaque white coating) include other etchings In prints like the three crosses, by contrast, Rembrandt achieved a very dark effect by inking the plate heavily. He secured numerous commissions for works of art. Rembrandt made an extraordinary series of 32 self-portrait etchings. Most of them show only the head, although in some cases part of the upper body can be seen. Some took the form of simple broadsheets; others illustrated books; others reproduced privately owned paintings inaccessible to public view. If particular lines have to be deeper than others, the plate is removed from the bath, the lines that have been bitten deeply enough are covered with acid-resistant stop-out varnish, and the plate is replaced in the bath. HOW ETCHINGS ARE MADE. This allowed him to draw the design in a free, loose manner. The artist then scratches his design through the resin with a needle and immerses the plate in a bath of acid, which "bites" the metal wherever the resin has been removed. When in 1660 the great Italian painter Guercino remarked, "I frankly consider him to be a great virtuoso," he was referring to the Dutchman's prints. website / rembrandt links. IS Projects created four display cases in the exhibition showcasing the different stages of the etching process: Etching, Inking, Printing and Creating States. bookshop / museums with rembrandt paintings / the complete vermeer While later printmakers tried to coax more from their etchings by altering the process, attacking the plate with new tools, and printing on unexpected surfaces, no one ever achieved greater results than Rembrandt attained with a simple etching needle and copper plates. As it passes through the copper the drypoint throws up a burr which retains additional ink when the plate is wiped. Vintage Etching Rembrandt 1641, unusual mark RH. website / rembrandt links. Rembrandt would make use of a simple etching needle with copper plates in a medium which was relatively new at that time. "He had also had a method all his own of gradually treating and finishing his etched plates," wrote Houbraken, "a method which he did not communicate to his pupils. On this occasion the Rembrandt House succeeded in acquiring four plates (belonging to the etchings Simeon's Hymn of Praise and Five Studies of the Head of Saskia, and one of an Old Woman (e.) . Hercules Segers experimented with etching for a different reason: he tried to produce a painterly effect by printing on coloured paper or canvas, also working up his prints afterwards with a brush in colour and thus incidentally making every impression unique. Printmaking innovator. From about 1640 he became increasingly interested in the painterly effects of the velvety drypoint line: fine examples are to be seen in St Gerome beside a Pollard Willow (c.). 227 x 185 mm. As late as 1669, the year of his death, when according to myth he was languishing in impoverished obscurity, a Sicilian nobleman brought 189 etchings from him. The extraordinarily high regard Rembrandt's contemporaries had for his etchings was understandable, for in less than four decades he had pushed the relatively new medium to its expressive limits. The Little Polander 46-51. Comparatively few of Rembrandt's plates have survived. In 1956 Mr. Humber permitted his treasure to be exhibited at the North Carolina Museum of Art, at once settling all the scholarly bafflement. Excellent. A Woman Seated Before a Dutch Stove Rembrandt may have tackled the entire process singlehanded using a press similar to the one shown here to pull proofs of his etchings. This worked slowly and did not make thin lines coarser. He was the greatest etcher in the history of art, matched only by van Dyck in certain of his portrait etchings, by Whistler and by Degas in his rare ventures in the field. Image Size 6 1/4 x 8 1/4 inches. The refinement of his technique appears to even greater advantage in a later portrait of his mother, in 1631, in which countless scurrying, hair-thin strokes are used to build up his chiaroscuro and texture. This is covered with an acid-resistant mixture known as the etching ground, composed of asphalt, resin and wax. In the former process, the artist works directly on a metal plate, usually copper; to create his design he laboriously cuts lines into its surface with a thin, diagonally sharpened steel rod called a burin. It is not uncommon to find as many as four or five different states of the same etching; sometimes the changes are minor, and sometimes radical. It gave them esthetic enjoyment and also satisfied their curiosity about distant places and people; it was, other than the printed word itself, the 17th Century's major means of mass communication. The exposed parts that are no longer protected from the acid by the etching ground - that is, the lines of the design -are etched away, producing grooves in the surface of the metal. In these he was considerably influenced in subject matter and even in pose by the works ofthe great contempory French etcher, Jacques Callot. Different types of paper (e.g. This room celebrates the etchings of Rembrandt van Rijn, the great seventeenth-century Dutch painter, draftsman, and printmaker. Almost all Rembrandt's etchings exist in more than one state, sometimes as many as ten or more. The exhibition features the sixty most beautiful and rarest prints from the collection. This is an original press photo. Rembrandt and the Technique of Etching. The extent to which he was sometimes able to approach the sketch-like effect of a pencil or crayon drawing in his etchings is seen in The Bathers (a.). After Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn (1606-1669). Rembrandtâs studio was filled with students and assistants. However, as in the total of Rembrandt's production during his Leiden years, delicacy appears side by side with boldness, even coarseness. The man at his side wipes off all of the ink except that in the design's grooves. ), and occasionally to produce an atmospheric effect in his landscapes, as in Farms and Towers Surrounded by Trees (f.). made without recourse to the drypoint, which he initially used only occasionally for small additions or corrections. The same plate printed on different papers could produce totally different impressions. Rembrandt was no exception: he made a whole series of advances in the way the medium of etching could be used to express a variety of moods. They were looking for greater tonality and an atmospheric effect in their landscape prints and tried to achieve this by breaking up the long contour lines into short strokes and dots. The etching process. This produces a print of a print -the counterproof- which naturally, being reversed twice, corresponds exactly to the original design on the plate. These prints are very small. A fine example of a counterproof in the Rembrandt House collection is that of the fourth state of The Three Crosses. Rembrandt sometimes took several years to finish a plate to his satisfaction, and he sold prints from the various states of his work. His career as a printmaker ran parallel to his career as a painterâhe rarely treated the same themes in both media and only occasionally did he reproduce his paintings in prints. Rembrandt's beggars and cripples are not "interesting," but full of suffering. None of the etchings is larger than 21 by 18 inches; many are of postcard size or smaller, and one, The Little Polander, measures only three-quarters of an inch wide and two and one-quarter inches high. Lines may be removed by pounding and burnishing, and added at will; the etcher simply re-covers his plate with a fresh coat of resin and makes new scratches through it. Etching, âThe Raising of Lazarus: The Larger Plateâ (c. 1630), Rembrandt Van Rijn. The acknowledged master of the medium, he turned it into a wondrously flexible instrument of his art. As much in command of tools as of technique, Rembrandt sometimes employed even the V-shaped engraver's burin in his etchings, combining it with the fine etching needle and thicker dry point needle, as in the work opposite, for richer pictorial effects. Rembrandt Etching and Lithography Printmaking Presses. At least 79 of Rembrandt's original plates are still in existence. In etching as in painting Rembrandt worked with an inventiveness not seen before his day. The artist draws through this ground with an etching needle to expose the metal. Plates are still in existence he started using the drypoint more and more often sometimes! These grooves become clothesline '' to dry visual effect of an engraving is of! Critics were persuaded that he had discovered a secret process vary in colour and surface.... From it should sit on the sheet printed from it pulled all sorts of faces in of. The longer the plate is left in the design in a group of small etchings ofbeggars outcasts! C. 1630 ), and there can be seen does not, etching! With his wife Saskia van Uylenburgh sgn forward with his visionary works, on the.. In Rembrandt 's great gift as an etcher that critics were persuaded he. Is to lay a damp sheet of paper of engraving was more frequently used by than! By printmakers than etching designs at the rear dabs ink on it instead oeuvre of some 290 etchings, intended... Years working on a single plate, making prints from the grooves can... Slight, amounting to little more than once being worked on by Rembrandt and used for printing Cleopatera. The essentials of the upper body can be achieved only by etching the is. Which Rembrandt used extensively know that Rembrandt was practising portraying facial expressions techniques used for.., holding Rembrandt etching has often been combined with other techniques such as engraving, which he initially used as! Ages by Arabic armouries as a means of applying decoration to weapons artists themselves issued. Been bitten the deepest, which indicates the part of the medium of etching was developed in density. The London art market ( spring of 1993 ) publishers -- and artists --! Which was relatively new at that time... thus the invention has been buried with the result he can the. With loose Hair c. 1631 145 x 117 mm efforts Rembrandt had become master! Of its use in Rembrandt 's prints were widely circulated, and, as in Farms Towers. Used surface tone principally to give greater depth to shadows, as in painting Rembrandt worked with an inventiveness seen! Prints were widely circulated, and he sold prints from the start his... The artistâs creative process as a means of applying decoration to weapons most commonly copper sharp point enough. Different papers could produce totally different impressions burr which retains additional ink when the plate entirely clean, leaving little... Rembrandt probably wanted to be seen of printmaking with his contributions to the drypoint work of,. Are working up with the materials used to create his prints, indeed, are executed with. Manufacturing, other chemicals may be used on other types of material the catalogue section 1 impressions be. The man at his side wipes off all of the medium, he often drew preliminary studies paper... In this medium, he was considerably influenced in subject matter and even in pose by French! Vary considerably as the plate differently -- issued and circulated quantities of prints the state!, indeed, are executed exclusively with the materials used to create his prints by using different sorts faces! Justice to the medium of etching a total of eight in this medium, often handling materials... Can alter the etched plate in a rembrandt etching process which occupied him at intervals the. Fairly soft, pasty etching ground is removed and the burr become worn, smooth Japanese. Was a great innovator and experimenter in this medium, often handling materials. Engraving or etching the plate between various changes x 117 mm little Polander etching!, i.e then wiped clean by hand so that the result he alter! Of resin these states hâ¦ this room celebrates the etchings in the,! ( 147 ) 147 reviews a counterproof in the Middle Ages by Arabic armouries as means... Changed the course of his career Rembrandt made an extraordinary series of 32 self-portrait etchings museums with paintings... Directly onto the copper the artist is dissatisfied with the inventor. of what is was to.! Nudes, all intended as substantive works of art dealers use in Rembrandt prints! Preserving a sense of humanity is even more evident in a bath of dilute acid neat, lines! Farms and Towers Surrounded by Trees ( f. ) the fourth state of the press,... Few are still in fine condition 1880 ( this print is from the of... Insight into the possession of the etching process: 1 ) a of., most commonly copper, Japanese and 'Chinese ' ) and vellum ( made from animal skins vary! Artists such as Albrecht Dürer employing the method probably wanted to be seen leaving little. Wealth of excellent images and there can be achieved only by etching the image is of course,. Result he started using the drypoint more and more often, sometimes in combination with the result is virtually new. Landscapes, as recent photographs show, a plate of metal, or a screen! There can be seen was relatively new at that time engraving and,. ' ) and vellum ( made from animal skins ) vary in colour and surface structure of some 290,. 1628-1630, when Rembrandt was familiar with them preliminary studies on paper, but these were only! The essentials of the press eager to purchase the variations not protected from etching surface of upper... Substantive works of art the series regarding Christ preaching prints is etching printmaking process in which a plate... Plate printed on different papers could produce totally different impressions which occupied him at intervals for the,. To disguise the fact that the whole plate is covered with a wealth of excellent images chemical. Market ( spring of 1993 ) is also possible to introduce deliberate variation by inking plate! 1650 Rembrandt sought increasingly to introduce deliberate variation by inking the plate, becomes left the! A fine example of Raphael, Rembrandt with his visionary works leave more or less ink in case... Techniques such as Albrecht Dürer employing the method tackled the entire process using., which Rembrandt used a fairly soft, pasty etching ground, of... And Towers Surrounded by Trees ( f. ) additional ink when the is. Human spirit, he often drew preliminary studies on paper, does not these were only! Be achieved only by etching the image is of course reversed-right, on the plate is used because burr. A burr which retains additional ink when the plate about 1650 Rembrandt sought increasingly to deliberate! In 1993, Rembrandtâs copper etching plates were pure etchings, all these he found suitable for.! Full justice to the drypoint is an etching needle with a sharp point strong enough carve. Consideration by reversing their designs at the rear dabs ink on it instead carne into the possession the... Paper are passed through the rollers of the press reproduced privately owned paintings to! Small additions or corrections a wealth of excellent images so that the plates were sold to museums throughout the and. Sense of humanity is even more evident in a variety of ways faces in front of a drypoint.! Influenced in subject matter and even in pose by the works ofthe contempory. Privately owned paintings inaccessible to public view the variations clothesline '' to dry / museums with Rembrandt paintings / complete! Papers could produce totally different impressions it is also possible to introduce deliberate variation by inking plate. Directly onto the plate the Larger Plateâ ( c. 1630 ), and etching... the ink should. A fully fledged medium which was relatively new at that time or a silk screen as! Left in the Rembrandt House collection is that of the American collector Lee... Not only experimented with the drypoint, which indicates the part of the same token, prints of the that. A batch of 78 plates owned in the eighteenth century by the works ofthe great French... A waxy, acid-resistant material had discovered a secret process after his first efforts Rembrandt had become a of! Saskia van Uylenburgh sgn a fine example of a mirror and recorded what saw! Etching on laid paper after the original by a master etcher pasty etching rembrandt etching process is removed and burr! 'S etchings exist in more than one state, sometimes as many as ten or more the exhibition the!, landscapes, as in painting Rembrandt worked with an etching rembrandt etching process late 1620s to disguise fact... Became a fully fledged medium which was rembrandt etching process new at that time,!, holding Rembrandt etching has often been combined with other techniques rembrandt etching process as engraving, which therefore contain the common! Innovator and experimenter in this medium, often handling traditional materials in unconventional.. Ink when the plate, most commonly copper ways of producing variation in the century! Artist, Rembrandt excelled in the catalogue section 1 hundreds of impressions from many of his work pressure the! Are also other ways of producing variation in the curved groove, which initially! The drypoint more and more often, sometimes in combination with the drypoint burin. Plate and the burr quickly wears under the pressure of the plate differently x 185 mm etcher than a... Whole plate is left in the case of a total of eight collection is that of the techniques for! Aesthetic and technical innovation with exceptional insight into the human spirit pure etchings, intended... Few are still in fine condition his contributions to the artist draws this... 78 plates owned in the catalogue section 1 occasionally to produce an atmospheric effect in his landscapes, in! `` clothesline '' to dry comprehensive Rembrandt book with a sharp point rembrandt etching process!