Maximilien de Robespierre, a key figure in the French Revolution, helped to upend the monarchy. He attacked Lafayette, who had become the commander of the French army and whom he suspected of wanting to set up a military dictatorship, but failed to obtain his dismissal and arrest. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The World's Famous Orations", Gazette nationale ou le Moniteur universel 27 July 1794, Cécile Obligi (2016) La légende noire de Robespierre, "The Encyclopaedia Britannica Or Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature", "Albert Mathiez (1874-1932), La Révolution française : La chute de la Royauté; La Gironde et la Montagne; La Terreur", Françoise Brunel (1989) Thermidor. Fouquier-Tinville, p. 117", Gazette nationale ou le Moniteur universel 30 July 1794, Gazette nationale ou le Moniteur universel 16 August 1794, p. 4, Précis historique inédit des événemens de la soirée du 9 Thermidor An II by Charles-André Méda, p. 384-385, Memoirs of the Sansons, from private notes and documents, 1688-1847 / edited by Henry Sanson", p. 202-203, "La fin tragique de Robespierre et de ses amis le 9 thermidor. By 1788 Robespierre was already well known for his altruism. He took a radical, democratic stance and was known as the Incorruptible for his dedication to civic morality. In the latter months of 1793 he came to dominate the Committee of Public Safety, the principal organ of the Revolutionary government during the Reign of Terror, but in 1794 he was overthrown and executed. VII. Robespierre was the son of a lawyer in Arras. Robespierre nevertheless decided to devote himself fully to his work in the National Assembly, where the constitution was being drawn up. Best known for: Ruling France during the Reign of Terror. Maximilien Robespierre, radical Jacobin leader and one of the principal figures in the French Revolution. NOW 50% OFF! On May 26, 1793, Robespierre called on the people “to rise in insurrection.” Five days later he supported a decree of the National Convention indicting the Girondin leaders and Dumouriez’s accomplices. ", This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 16:37. Internationale. "Living the Revolutionary Melodrama: Robespierre's Sensibility and the Construction of Political Commitment in the French Revolution. He quickly attracted attention in an assembly that included some distinguished names. As a member of the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club, he campaigned for universal manhood suffrage and the abolition both of celibacy for the clergy, and slavery. Robespierre, his life threatened, went to live with the family of the cabinetmaker Maurice Duplay. Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) was one of the leaders and orators of the French Revolution of 1789, best known for his involvement in the Reign of Terror that followed. 900 seconds. When Brissot’s supporters stirred up opinion against him, Robespierre founded a newspaper, Le Défenseur de la Constitution (“Defense of the Constitution”), which strengthened his hand. His mother died when Robespierre was an infant and his father abandoned the family shortly after, leaving Robespierre and his siblings to be raised by their grandparents. "The choices of Maximilien Robespierre.". ", Jones, Colin. Maximilien Robespierre lost his head—literally. Peter McPhee, « « Mes forces et ma santé ne peuvent suffire ». Although he had defined the aims of insurrection, he hesitated to advocate it: “Fight the common enemy,” he told the provincial volunteers, “only with the sword of law.” When the insurrection nevertheless broke out on August 10, 1792, Robespierre took no part in the attack on the Tuileries Palace. He received a law degree in 1781 and became a lawyer at Arras, where he set up house with his sister Charlotte. Proofs of his growing popularity were the ferocious attacks made by the royalist press on this “Demosthenes,” “who believes everything he says,” this “monkey of Mirabeau’s” (the comte de Mirabeau, a politician who wanted to create a constitutional assembly). Q. Maximilien Robespierre is best known in Frnech history for. Maximilien Robespierre was born in Arras, France, in 1758. Jaargang 36, https://scholarworks.umass.edu/history_oapubs/2, "The Myth of the Foreign Enemy? A Peoples' History 1793 – 1844 from the newspapers. When the summoning of the Estates-General (a national assembly that had not been called since 1614) was announced, he issued an appeal entitled À la nation artésienne sur la nécessité de réformer les Etats d’Artois (“To the People of Artois on the Necessity of Reforming the Estates of Artois”). Profile Books Ltd. Dunoyer, Alphonse (1913) The public prosecutor of the terror, Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville. During the period of The French Revolution, Maximilien Robespierre, French lawyer and politician, was probably one of the most influential and well – known figures. Maximilien Robespierre. Maximilien Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) is one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and statesman who was one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. Hazan, Eric (2014) A People's History of the French Revolution. In accordance with the Jacobins, they controlled the time known as the Reign of Terror, due to their influence in the accumulation of murders of those opposed to the revolution. France culture; Marcel Gauchet and Jean-Clément Martin on 27/10/2018, Jean-Clément Martin Robespierre. "Robespierre, Old Regime Feminist? During the Reign of Terror, Robespierre came to dominate the Committee of Public Safety, which exercised virtual dictatorial control over the French government and systematically executed some 17,000 perceived enemies of the Revolution. ", Sepinwall, Alyssa Goldstein. Omissions? Henceforth, he spoke only at the Jacobin Club, where he was to be heard about 100 times, until August 1792. 30 March 2000. Maximilien de Robespierre was a radical Jacobin leader and one of the principal figures in the French Revolution. 1906. "'My Strength and My Health Are not Great Enough': Political Crises and Medical Crises in the Life of Maximilien Robespierre, 1790-1794. Answers: 1 on a question: Maximilien Robespierre is best known in French history for A) rallying French support for the American Revolution B) trying to eliminate enemies of the French Revolution C) attempting to preserve the monarchy of Louis XVI D) enforcing the principles of the Napoleonic Code The reverses suffered by the French army after France had declared war on Austria and Prussia had been foreseen by Robespierre, and, when invasion threatened, the people rallied to him. In all, the committee oversaw some 17,000 official executions. What is Maximilien Robespierre known for? ", Fouche & Robespierre, le 9 thermidor by Arnaud Louis Raoul Comte de Martel, p. 238-239, "The public prosecutor of the Terror by A.Q. He exonerated the mob, and on September 5 the people of Paris elected him to head the delegation to the National Convention. Profiles in power. French Revolution Primary Source Documents. There he shared classes with Camille Desmoulins, who for much of the revolutio… Vol. Maximilien Robespierre "Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible" More Information Libr. But that same afternoon his section (an administrative subdivision of Paris), Les Piques, nominated him to the insurrectional Commune. Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer, politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. In April he had presided over the Jacobins, a political club promoting the ideas of the French Revolution. "Robespierre and War, a question posed as early as 1789?. In the latter months of 1793 he came to dominate the Committee of Public Safety, the principal organ of the Revolutionary government during the Reign of Terror, but in 1794 he was overthrown and executed in the Thermidorian Reaction. 6. His Last Speech by Maximilien Marie Isidore Robespierre. From 1765 he attended the college of the Oratorians at Arras, and in 1769 he was awarded a scholarship to the famous college of Louis-le-Grand in Paris, where he distinguished himself in philosophy and law. In 1791, Robespierre became an outspoken advocate for the citizens without a political voice, for their unrestricted admission to the National Guard, to public offices, and for t… ", Turner, Michael J. Died: July 28, 1794 in Paris, France. Librairie Jouaust. Maximilien Robespierre, in full Maximilien-François-Marie-Isidore de Robespierre, (born May 6, 1758, Arras, France—died July 28, 1794, Paris), radical Jacobin leader and one of the principal figures in the French Revolution. Cobban, Alfred. ", Poirot, Thibaut. In History. OCLC 764094902. Questions and answers about Maximilien Robespierre. 90–91, Neil Jaffares, dictionary of pastellist before 1800, Arnold Heumakers (1988) Een homme de lettres in de Franse Revolutie: de ‘Mémoires’ van Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvray (1760-1797), p. 17. New York. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Blanc, Louis Jean Joseph (1869). In the latter months of 1793, he … Robespierre briefly presided over the influential Jacobin Club, a political club based in Paris. Maximilien and his siblings were raised by their paternal aunts. On July 27, 1794, Robespierre and a number of his followers were arrested at the Hôtel de Ville in Paris. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? London: Chatto and Windus. Former Secretary, Commission for the Economic and Social History of the French Revolution. It was at his suggestion that the Constituent Assembly passed an act according to which its members were banned from being elected to the future French parliament. Maximilien Robespierre has always been known to be controversial and misunderstood. The American Revolution (1763-1789) The French Revolution (1781-1795) World War I (1914-1918) The Russian Revolution (1905-1924) Podcast (52 min.) "Robespierre in French and English language publications since 2000. Start studying History - Maximilien Robespierre. Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and statesman who was one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. His private practice provided him with a comfortable income. "Revolutionary Connection: 'The Incorruptible' Maximilian Robespierre and the 'Schoolmaster of Chartism' Bronterre O’Brien. After the flight of Louis XVI (June 20–21, 1791), for which Robespierre vainly demanded his trial, the slanders against the Revolutionary deputy became twice as violent. "Never the Same Again: On Some Recent Interpretations of the French Revolution.". His name is often associated with the French Revolution. A kind of “popular front” was formed between the Parisian sansculottes, the poor, ultraleft republicans, and the Montagnards. Cobban, Alfred. Maximilien RobespierreBiography. Robespierre was born in Arras, about 115 miles (180 kilometres) north of Paris, in 1758. New York: G.P. Gender, the Late Eighteenth Century, and the French Revolution Revisited. He attended a local school and proved an exceptional student, winning a scholarship to Paris. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Robespierre was the architect of the Reign of Terror in France. In March 1789 the citizens of Arras chose him as one of their representatives, and the Third Estate (the commons) of the bailiwick elected him fifth of the eight deputies from Artois. La société des Jacobins: Mars à novembre 1794. Flammarion. Updates? Howe (1982) Foreign Policy and the French Revolution, p. 175-176, France and Its Revolutions: G. Long (1850) A Pictorial History 1789-1848, p. 265, Oeuvres de Maximilien Robespierre, Volume 9, p. 348-349, 352, 355, 359, 360, "From victory to defeat, the declaration of war against England and Spain, the insurrection in the Vendée, the fall of the Gironde - A People's History of the French Revolution", Fair Shares for All: Jacobin Egalitarianism in Practice by Jean-Pierre Gross, p. 37, "The dramas of Germinal and Thermidor - A People's History of the French Revolution", Collection complète des lois, décrets, ordonnances, réglemens, p. 325, Histoire de la Révolution française, Volume 2 by Louis Jean Joseph Blanc, p. 196, Eloise Ellery (1915) Brissot de Warville: A Study in the History of the French Revolution, p. 285, Oeuvres de Maximilien Robespierre, Volume 9 By Maximilien Robespierre, p. 530-534, Oeuvres de Maximilien Robespierre, Volume 9 By Maximilien Robespierre, p. 539, Histoire de la revolution Française, Volume 8 by Jules Michelet, p. 37, The Committee of public safety (6th April 1793 — 4th brumaire an IV), FRENCH CONSTITUTION of the twenty-fourth of June, 1793, Contesting the French Revolution by Paul R. Hanson, p. 100-101, Mandats à l’Assemblée nationale ou à la Chambre des députés, "Augustin, Bon, Joseph de Robespierre - Base de données des députés français depuis 1789 - Assemblée nationale", June to October 1793. May 6, 1758. Longman. ", Belissa, Marc, and Julien Louvrier. Bienvenu, Richard T. (1968) The Ninth of Thermidor: The Fall of Robespierre. Recueil de documents pour l'histoire du club des Jacobins de Paris (in French). In 1994, a plaque was unveiled by ARBR on the façade of the Carrauts’ brewery on the Rue Ronville, where Maximilien and Augustin were brought up by their grandparents. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. His mother died in July of 1764 due to complications related to childbirth and his father, François de Robespierre, left the children to travel Europe. He probably made his maiden speech on May 18, 1789, and he was to speak more than 500 times during the life of the National Assembly. May 5, 1789. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! He opposed the royal veto, the abuses of ministerial power, and religious and racial discrimination. See more ideas about French revolution, Maximilien, Revolution. Verso. OCLC 763671875. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Contrary to the long-held belief that Robespierre led an isolated life, he often visited local notables and mingled with the young people of the district. Maximilian Robespierre was the leader of Jacobins club which led a successful revolt and came to power. In: Annales historiques de la Révolution française 2013/1 (No. ... Advocate Robespierre became an advocate. Maximilien Robespierre, oil on canvas by Pierre-Roch Vigneron, 1786; in the Museum of French History, Palace of Versailles. London. Although he had excluded himself and his colleagues from the new Legislative Assembly, Robespierre continued to be politically active, giving up the lucrative post of public prosecutor of Paris, to which he had been elected in June 1791. He denounced the secret intrigues of the court and of the royalists, their collusion with Austria, the unpreparedness of the army, and the possible treason of aristocratic officers whose dismissal he demanded in February 1792. "Robespierre and the Terror", Linton, Marisa. 2 (2011): 188-213 by Elisabeth Cross, Lazare Carnot, republican patriot, by Huntley Dupre, p. 48, Collection Complète des Lois, Décrets, Ordonnances, Réglements, p. 330, Mémoires de Charles Barbaroux, député à la convention nationale ..., Volume 5 by Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux, Charles O. Barbaroux, p. 62, "The journée of 20 June, the Brunswick Manifesto, the taking of the Tuileries, the end of the monarchy, the September massacres - A People's History of the French Revolution", "F. Furet & M. Ozouf (1989) A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution, p. 139", The French Revolution: From Enlightenment to Tyranny by Ian Davidson, p. xiv, 126, Mémoires de Charlotte Robespierre sur ses deux frères, p. 76, Jacques Pierre Brissot in America and France, 1788–1793: In Search of Better ... by Bette W. Oliver, p. 112, The French Legislative Assembly of 1791 by C. J. Mitchell, p. 174, "Maximilien, François, Marie, Isidore, Joseph de Robespierre — Base de données des députés français depuis 1789 — Assemblée nationale", The Works: With Memoirs of His Life and Writings by Robert Anderson, Volume 3 by John Moore, p. 377-379, The Enlightenment that Failed: Ideas, Revolution, and Democratic Defeat ... By Jonathan I. Israel, p. 483, The French Revolution: Faith, Desire and Politics by Noah Shusterman, p. 147, "All of His Power Lies in the Distaff: Robespierre, Women and the French Revolution", Oeuvres de Maximilien Robespierre, Band 9 by Maximilien Robespierre,p. He later became well-known and succesful in this position. Abbe Sieyes . He studied law through a scholarship and in 1789 was elected to be a representative of the Arras commoners in the Estates General. The Marseillaise Audio and Lyrics. Bryan, William Jennings, ed. Paris, Pluriel. "The overthrow of Maximilien Robespierre and the "indifference" of the people.". The king’s execution did not, however, resolve the struggle between the Girondins and the Montagnards, the deputies of the extreme left. As a young man, he studied law and had a reputation for honesty and compassion. He succeeded in making himself heard despite the weak carrying power of his voice and the opposition he aroused, and his motions were usually applauded. He soon made a name for himself and was appointed a judge at the Salle Épiscopale, a court with jurisdiction over the provostship of the diocese. Maximilien Robespierre was a radical democrat and key figure in the French Revolution of 1789. He managed to keep the Jacobin Club alive after all of its moderate members had joined a rival club. The Death of Maximilien de Robespierre, July 28, 1794 awyers led the French Revolution. crises politiques, crises médicales dans la vie de Maximilien Robespierre, 1790-1794 », Annales historiques de la Révolution française, 371 | 2013, 137-152. He was a qualified lawyer and as the French Revolution took hold he led the radical party, the Jacobins, in the National Covention. On 14 Octobre 1923, a plaque was placed on the house at 9 Rue Maximilien Robespierre (formerly Rue des Rapporteurs) rented by the three Robespierre siblings in 1787–1789, in the presence of the mayor Gustave Lemelle, Albert Mathiez and Louis Jacob. He worked as a criminal judge and eventually became a successful advocate and chose overwhelmingly to represent the poor. The Committee of Public Safety and the Reign of Terror, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Maximilien-Robespierre, Heritage History - Biography of Robespierre, Alpha History - Biography of Maximilien François, Age of the Sage - Transmitting the Wisdoms of the Ages - Biography of Maximilien Robespierre, Maximilien de Robespierre - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Leuwers, Hervé (2014) Robespierre. Maximilien Robespierre (1758–1794) grew up in northern France, and he later earned a law degree from a school in Paris. During the Terror, the committee exercised virtual dictatorial control over the French government. Maximilien Robespierre came to dominate the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror. La chute de Robespierre, p. 112, "The Life of Maximilien Robespierre: With Extracts from His Unpublished Correspondence", http://www.persee.fr/doc/ahrf_0003-4436_1992_num_287_1_1479, "Projet de procès-verbal des séances de 9, 10 et 11 thermidor par Charles Duval, p. 34", "Les journées de Prairial an II : le tournant de la Révolution ? In: Maatstaf. The period from 1793 to 1794 was know as "Reign of terror". Maximilien Robespierre began his political career in 1789, when he was elected to represent the Third Estate of Artois in the pre-Revolutionary Estates-General. rallying French support for the American Revolution. At the same time, the scarcity of food and the rising prices created a revolutionary mood. The Brunswick Manifesto and the Radicalization of the French Revolution," French History 25, no. On Giving Women the Right of Citizenship by Condorcet. In April 1790, he preside… As a lawyer representing poor people, he had alarmed the privileged classes by his protests in his “Mémoire pour le Sieur Dupond” (“Report for Lord Dupond”) against royal absolutism and arbitrary justice. OCLC 317736774, Andress, David. Davidson, Ian (2016) The French Revolution: From Enlightenment to Tyranny. McPhee, Peter. Occupation: French Revolutionary. "Robespierre, the Duke of York, and Pisistratus During the French Revolutionary Terror", The Law of Prairial and the Great Terror (Fall, year IV), 'Come and Dine': The Dangers of Conspicuous Consumption in French Revolutionary Politics, 1789-1795' by Marisa Linton and Mette Harder, Lazare Carnot, republican patriot, by Huntley Dupre, p. 185-187, "Lazare Carnot, French military engineer", Petites Chroniques #14 : La Révolution française — 1790 à 1794 ..., Band 14, "II. 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